Let me tell you of a story that was lost and forgotten amidst Pitivi’s development battlegrounds last fall, a manuscript that I recovered from a Moldy Tome in a stony field. According to my historical data, the original author was a certain “Dorian Leger”, a French messenger that went missing from the vicinity of Paris.
I am taking the liberty of altering fairly substantially this manuscript to clarify some parts while restoring its intent and style according to the historical context. It will serve as the first part of an epic tale (the second part is yet to be written, it will come in the next blog post, though it will probably have a more “modern” writing style), about our war against deadlocks, vile creatures that have been threatening the stability of our application for much too long. Technically, we’ve always been at war with EastasiaDeadlocks; you can see that even in the noble title of our 0.13.2 release, from a time when a different squad of maintainers roamed this land.
Without further ado, here is my transcription of the report:
Paris, le vingt-huit septembre, MMXIV
Dear supporters of the Video Editing Liberation Front,
Over the last month and a half, we have made major strides debugging and rewriting important backend code that Pitivi depends on. At the edge of the land of Pitivi, we are approaching the 0.94 milestone, which we plan on liberating in the coming weeks. I have been discussing with sieur Duponchelle to enquire about a particular piece of work the Company has been preparing for that purpose. He said, “We have torn out a large chunk of bug-ridden code in GStreamer and replaced it with a brand new videomixing element that we can finally show with pride and confidence. It will be a tremendous help in our battle against the Deadlocks; hopefully, it will give us stable and bug-free seeking in the timeline at last.”
Indeed, I have heard tales of previous Pitivi versions consistently crashing when seeking in a section of cross-faded (overlapped) clips. In other words, when we tried to select a frame that contained a cross-fade from one clip to another, Pitivi would freeze up and need to be put by the sword. Needless to say, this bug was killing not only the user experience, but also the morale of our troops, and needed to be dealt with as swiftly and efficiently as possible.
The technical problem behind this nuisance was a powerful piece of equipment in the GStreamer artillery: the GstElement videomixer. This contraption was trying to deal with threads other elements were throwing at it, which was by design extremely complex and error-prone—to the point where some have said it to be the work of the Devil itself.
When we inspected the machine, we found the diagram above. Transcription of the odd scriptures in that diagram leads to the following interpretation of how it operated:
“To make this machine worketh, thou wilt receive buffers from all them sinkpads in different threads. Therefore, thou wilt wait for all thy pads to get a buffer to decide to mix & push the result on thy srcpad; hence thou shall be pushing buffers from the thread on which thee hath received thy last buffer. Eke, make sure not to stand in front of the machine when operating it.” — Dante, son of Sparda
Multithreading, if you recall your scholarship with the monks of Shaolin, is a difficult art to master. It allows running multimedia processing tasks in the background and enables several tasks to be executed simultaneously. A multi-threaded approach is essential to us, but also requires tedious management of variables shared by different threads (these variable usually describe audio data and video pixelization, in the case of the GstElement videomixer machine). As simultaneous threads often work on the same variables, the backend developer, proficient in the ancient C language, needs to ensure these threads do not simultaneously edit a variable, and the developer must carefully manage how threads give each other the signal to edit a variable.
In the case of the strange machine that was causing those problems, we destroyed it with fire and rebuilt it with simplicity and harmony in mind. I cannot tell for sure, but I have been told that over ten thousand lines of ancient codes were rewritten through the exquisite art of multithreading kung fu. The new videomixer machine now has the srcpad running its own thread, and we aggregate and push buffers on the srcpad from that thread. This technique makes us much stronger against the Deadlocks.
As you have certainly seen for yourselves, previous Pitivi versions—particularly due to the mixing elements in GStreamer—were plagued with bugs causing threads to wait for each other indefinitely. To make this easier to imagine, let’s take a modern analogy: the previous videomixer implementation looked like a city full of cars at stop-sign intersections, waiting for the each other to go, causing endless traffic jams behind them. The good news is, after rewriting over 10,000 lines of code, the stop-signs were replaced by a much simpler and reliable system in 0.94, which means our videomixing element is now thread-friendly and ‘bug-free’. This required a complete rework of our mixing stack (by writing a new baseclass to substitute to collectpads2). It was quite an involved process.
We’re quite happy with what we have achieved there, but the Deadlocks are not so easily vanquished, and the story doesn’t end there. The rest of the manuscript is fairly short and consisted mostly of predictions for events that have now occurred since then, which I will be covering in the next blog post when I find more time, as it requires further analysis and expansion.
- An update from the 2014 summer battlefront
- The 0.94 release
- The War Against Deadlocks, part 1: The story of our new thread-safe mixing elements reimplementation
- The War Against Deadlocks, part 2: GNonLin’s reincarnation
- The 0.95 release, the GTK+ timeline and sink
- Measuring quality/reliability through time (clarifying what gst-validate is)
- Our all-in-one binaries building infrastructure, and why it matters
- Samples, “scenario” files and you: how you can help us reproduce (almost) any bug very easily
- The 1.0 release and closure of the fundraiser